PRINTED FOR THE MALONE SOCIETY BY
CHARLES WHITTINGHAM & CO.
AT THE CHISWICK
IPHIGENIA AT AULIS
THE MALONE SOCIETY
REPRINTS - IV o
This edition of Lady Lumley's translation of the
Iphigenia at Aulis of Euripides has been prepared by
Harold H. Child and checked by the General Editor.
Oct. 1909. W. W. Greg.
THE play now for the first time printed is the earliest
extant attempt to render into English a work of one of
the Greek dramatists. The translator was Jane, daughter
of Henry Fitzalan, twelfth Earl of Arundel, and wife of
John, first Baron Lumley of the second creation. It
is a pity that the natural companion of the present
piece, Princess Elizabeth's translation, also of a tragedy
of Euripides, is not forthcoming.
The volume in which the play is preserved at the
British Museum, MS. Reg. 15. A. ix, bears on the
first leaf the inscription: 'The doinge of my Lady
Lumley dowghter to my L. Therle of Arundell,' while
below is the autograph signature of Lord Lumley. It
is a quarto volume of 127 leaves, a good many of which
are blank and not included in the numbering, which is
modern. The contents, all in Lady Lumley's autograph
except in the one instance noted, are as follow:
Oratio prima Isocratis ad Demonicum f. 2
Ends imperfectly on f. 2 b : 3 has headline only: there follow
7 blank leaves unnumbered.
Epistola f. 4
A new-year letter to Lord Arundel, to accompany the following
Oration, and ending: Filia tua tibi deditissima loanna Lumleya.
Oratio Isocratis 2 a ad Nicoclem f. 5
Nicocles, 3* Oratio Isocratis f. 12
Epistola f. 23
To Lord Arundel, to accompany the following Oration.
Euagoras, Oratio quarta Isocratis ad Nicoclem f. 24
There follows I blank leaf unnumbered : another has been cut out.
Argumentu Orationis Isocratis quam in laudem pacis scripsit . . f. 40
Oratio Isocratis in laudem pacis f. 41
There follow 2 blank leaves unnumbered.
TheTragedie of Euripides called Iphigeneia translated out of Greake
into Englisshe 63
There follow 13 blank leaves unnumbered.
A note: acerba audire tolerabilius, qum videre f.98 b
There follow 2 blank leaves unnumbered.
Two pages of extracts (in a different hand) from charter rolls
of Yorkshire and Northumberland (temp. Hen. Ill &
Edw. I) f. 99 b
An extract of two pages : Mattheus Siluaticus de lapide aquilae.
cap, 395 f. ioi b
A note: Nemo poluto queat animo mederi f. ioz b
The whole of the contents are in Latin with the excep-
tion of Iphigenia. The printed catalogue of the Royal
MSS. erroneously states that this too is in Latin, and
the statement has been repeated elsewhere. The arrange-
ment of the entry in the catalogue, which separates the
play from the orations, has also given rise to an un-
founded belief that the former was at one time separate.
The volume appears to have served as a common-
place book or rough copy book. A fair copy of the
Fourth Oration is found in another Royal MS., 15. A. ii,
a small octavo volume, very carefully written, and uni-
form with MS. Reg. 15. A. i, containing the 'Oratio
Isocratis que Archidamus inscribatur.' This last is
certainly a presentation copy to Lord Arundel, and
bears on the first leaf an inscription similar to and in the
same hand as that in the quarto volume. It also bears
Lumley's signature, having passed into his possession
with the rest of Arundel's library on the latter's death.
The date of the translations is not known. They
were, of course, produced after Lady Lumley's marriage,
but were nevertheless in all probability still exercises of
childhood. Unfortunately none of the relevant dates
are known precisely. John Lumley was most likely
born in 1534, Jane Fitzalan probably not later than
1537. Their marriage took place soon after May 1549,
the date of Lumley's matriculation at Cambridge.
There is extant (MS. Reg. 17. A. xlix) a translation of
'Erasmus his Institution of a Christian Prince/ bearing
at the end the inscription : 'Your lordeshippes obedient
sone I. Lumley. 1550.' Since Lumley's own father
was executed in 1537, the person addressed can only
have been Arundel. The volume, moreover, bears
Arundel's name. It seems probable, therefore, that
husband and wife pursued their classical studies con-
currently, and that the present play was translated at
no long period subsequent to their marriage. Lady
Lumley was buried on 9 March 1576/7.
The translation, which is by no means either literal
or complete, appears from the spelling 'Iphigeneia' to
have been made directly from the Greek, and this is
indeed inherently probable ; but a Latin version of the
play by Erasmus had been printed at Paris in 1506,
while a complete rendering of the Euripidean tragedies
in that language was also extant.
The present edition follows the MS. line for line,
and presents the text as finally corrected by the trans-
lator. All alterations are, however, recorded in the
LIST OF IRREGULARITIES AND ALTERATIONS.
N.B. In this list deletions are indicated by being placed within brackets.
Argumt. i. Tragadie.
22. the [ehe] (or [che]) chefeste
33. a nother
48 c.w. fained (49. fainedlye)
56. aske (interlined)
59. as/thoughe (i.e. written as one
word andmarked for division]
69. cowcell (cowncell)
84. be [b] let
Text 19. abro-|de [,]? (query in-
serted but comma left}
21 c.w. wat (22. Watchemen)
36. take (ke written over erasure}
44 c.w. some- (45. sometimes)
90. whoOy(oowritten over erasure)
149. Soo (second o altered from t)
1 60 c.w. Sen (Sen.)
165. a noth-| er
183. hinder [this] the
245. seruante ? (query altered from
248. (no c.w.)
270. (no c.w.)
283. my | nowne
292. an (interlined]
308. honor, [withe]
330. shippes (interlined)
364. barbarians (the barbarians)
409 c.w. Me. (410. Mene.)
424. is (interlined)
455 c.w. gran-
475. to [t] be(?)
505. parte, (r interlined)
508. knowe (n interlined)
523. (no c.w.}
558. complai- 1 nte. .(?)
590. You [kn (?)] knowe
592 c.w. Iphi- (593. Iphi.)
607. mene (ne interlined)
638. shulde [s] knowe
648. Aga (Aga.)
652. fiste (firste)
654. asonder, (?)
676. (no c.w.)
696. it (interlined]
709. Agamemnon[s], (comma
726. your (ur altered from u ?)
731. leda (Leda)
and [, and] the
740. (no c.w.}
762 c.w. But (but)
783. Agamnon (Agamemnon)
784 c.w. de- (785. determined)
796. he (interlined]
804 c.w. Aga.
854. How [best] I praye
859. flatterer (re interlined]
874. [Iti] It is
893. (no c.w.}
900. shall [yj be yours/and
934. owne [daughter], (childe
984 c.w. ought (985. oughte)
990. of (interlined]
IOOO. [tl] trulye(?)
1 02 1. cause [whiche] who
1029. you [y] to
1030. me (interlined]
1052. sis-|ter [be] slayne,
1064. [knowe] not
1074. de- 1 liuer/you (r/ inserted ?)
1 08 1. broughtup(P)
1099. may [maye] hide
1107, 1 1 12. your (r interlined,
perhaps you r )
1113. n wes, (first stroke ofw origin-
ally intendedfor i and dotted]
1128. was [t] reported (?)
1133. is (it)
1141. harneste [?] men ? (r
altered from s)
1151. heade ? (a interlined and
1153. he (interlined]
hathe [he] taken
1157. he (interlined]
1 164. your [daughter] husband,
1 1 66. And/you (altered from for
1171 c.w. ther- (1172. therfore)
1 20 1. witstande (withstande)
1208. barbarias (barbarians)
1213. O (interlined]
1215. one[,]: (e altered and
I22O c.w. more (e altered
1227. desire (r interlined]
1251. bothe [bot] be
1255. saye [from] your (to
1286. (no c.w.}
1293. for- 1 sake [you] nowe.
1332. speke (k altered and
1348. wellthe(well written over
1351. preuilie. (?)
1354. [had] weare
1362. the (interlined]
1364. wher [s] he
1365. there/chaunced (e/ in-
1366. uoice (possibly noice for
1368. meruelinge (r inserted]
1382. lenger (first e altered 1396. that (interltnea)
from o) 1408 c.w. Cho (Cho.)
1392. taken [up] 1409. goddes [interlined]
J393- C r ( ? )] U P
A peculiarity of the hand is that *u* is used consistently in all
positions for vowel and consonant alike. Long *s* is usually found
initially and medially except before * t ' and in the second position when
doubled. It has not been retained in the reprint. A minuscule *f
repeatedly appears after a period. Ornamental flourishes complete the
half-filled lines at the end of speeches and also frequently occur after
catchwords. Many of the latter are followed by a stop which is not
needed, but in these cases the stop has been treated as part of the
flourish and omitted in the reprint. On folio 69* the running-title is
miswritten * Iphigeneneya.'
A list of characters is given on folio 65 b . The names
are in order of entrance except that the Nuntius should
appear after Menelaus. The exact points of entry and
exit are unmarked and not always clear, but the follow-
ing tentative list may be of use. The Chorus may be
assumed to be present throughout, though this is not
i. Enter Agamemnon, Senex.
206. Enter Menelaus.
250 or later. Exit Senex.
421. Enter Nuntius.
44.7. Exit Nuntius.
560. Exit Menelaus.
^72. Enter Clytemnestra and Iphi-
657. Exit Iphigenia.
705. Exit Clytemnestra.
708. Exit Agamemnon.
709. Enter Achilles.
719. Enter Clytemnestra.
768. Enter Senex.
814 or later. Exit Senex.
904. Exit Achilles.
905. Enter Agamemnon.
917. Enter Iphigenia.
1075. Exit Agamemnon.
1108. Enter Achilles.
1236. Exit Achilles.
1318. Exit Iphigenia.
1331. Enter Nuntius.
1390. Exit Nuntius.
1400. Enter Agamemnon.
1411. Exeunt omnes.
MS. REG, i . A. ix. FOLIO i RECTO
FOLIO 66 RECTO
FACSIMILES BY HORACE HART, M.A., AT THE OXFORD UNIVERSITY PRESS
The Tragedie of Euripides
called Iphigeneia tran-
slated out of Greake
\The Argument of the Tragadie.
After that the captaines of the grecians withe
the nauye and the other preparacions of battell,
did come together unto the hauen of Aulida,
that from thens they mighte saile towardes
Troye: ther came sodenly suche a calme we-
ther, that for wante of wynde they coulde haue
no passage. Wherfore the riposte beinge gre-
ued that they spent there their time idlelye,
10 asked cowncell of the wisemen, to whom Cal-
chas the propheciar awnswered, that if Iphi-
geneia the daughter of Agamemnon weare
sacraficed to the goddes Diana of Aulida,
that then the grecians shulde haue a for-
tunate passage to Troye. Wherfore the
hooste beinge called together, Menelaus
did perswade his brother Agamemnon to agree
that his daughter might be sente for. And
bicause that Clytemnestra her mother shul-
20 de be the willinger to let hir goo, they fained
that she shulde be maried to Achilles one of
the chefeste noble men of grece. This ex-
cuse none knewe but only Agamemnon,
Menelaus, Calchas, and Vlysses. But Agame-
non after that he had written unto his
wife of this matter, repented greately that
whiche he had done, lamentinge moche
the deathe of his daughter. Wherfore in
the nighte he wrote other letters preue-
ly unto his wife, declaringe that she shulde3o
not nede to sende the uirgine hir daughter unto
Aulyda : for hir manage shulde be deferred unto
a nother time. Thes letters he deliuered
ajfore daye unto an olde man his seruante,
that he mighte carye them into grece, decla-
ringe unto him, what they conteined. But
Menelaus waitinge afore daye for the comin-
ge of the uirgine, take the olde man carien-
ge the letter, and did reproue Agamemnon
uerye uehementlye, for his unconstantesie. 40
In the meane time one of Clitemnestras
company tolde Agamemnon, Menelaus beinge
ther present, that Iphigeneia withe her mo-
ther Clitemnestra, and yonge Orestes hir
brother was come unto Aulida, and that all
the hooste knewe of their cominge. Menelaus
then perceiuinge that Agamemnon colde
not sende his daughter home againe, began
[fol. 64] fained
fainedlye to perswade him not to sley the uirgine
50 for his sake. In the meane time whilste they
are resoninge of this matter, Clitemnestra
comethe in withe Iphigenia hir doughter, tho-
rowe whos cominge Agamenon is wonderfully
trobled, bycause he purposed to keape secrete
the cownsell of his daughters deathe. Wherfore
whilste he goethe about to aske counsell of Cal-
chas, Achilles comethe in the meane time
to chide withe him. Whom Clitemnestra
hearinge, she dothe salute him as thoughe
60 he sholde haue bene hir soneinlawe. Achilles
beinge ignorante of this matter dothe won-
der at it. Then Agamemnons seruante the
olde man to whom the letters weare de-
liuered, dothe bewray Agamenons counsell,
and declarethe to them the hole matter.
-Then Achilles beinge angrie that under the
/ cooler of his name, they had determined
.^ ' *"*
the deathe of the uirgine, he dothe defen-
de hir in the cowcell of the grecians,
70 that she shulde not be slaine, but he is
ouercomed withe the uoice of the comon
people. Wherfore whan the matter was
broughte to suche a troble, that the whole
hooste required the uirgine, and Achilles
onlye was redie to contende againste
them all. Then Iphigenia her selfe chau-
ged hir minde, and perswadethe hir mo-
ther, that it is better for her to dye a glo-
rious deathe, then that for the safegarde
only of hir life, either so many nobleme 80
shoulde fall out within them selues, or
else suche a noble enterprise, beinge ta-
ken in hande, shulde shamefullye agai-
ne be let slippe. Wherfore she beinge
brought to the aulter of the goddes,
was taken up to the countrie of Tau-
rus, and in hir place was sente a
white harte. And whan the sacrafice
was thus finisshed the grecians sai-
led to Troye. 90
The ende of the
The names of the spekers in
1. Agamemnon, the kinge.
2. Senex, an olde man his seruante.
3. Chorus, a companie of women.
4. Menelaus, Agamenons brother.
5. Clytemnestra, Agamenons wife.
6. Iphigeneia, the daughter of Clitemnestra
7. Achylles, her fained husbande.
8. Nuncius, the messenger.
Here beginnethe the
tragedie of Euripides
Aga. Come hether O thou olde man.
Sen. I come, but what is the matter O kinge?
Aga. Thou shake knowe anone.
Sen. I make haste to come, for my oulde age
is uerie quicke and redie, for bothe
the strengthe of my limmes, and also
the sighte of mine eyes dothe yet con-
Aga. But what meanethe this, me thinkes
I see a starre shoote? 10
Sen. It maye be so in dede : for it is not yet
midnighte, as it may be iudged by
the course of the seuen starres.
Aga. I thinke so too, for I heare no noise of
birdes, neither of the seae, nor yet of
the winde, all thinges nowe are quiete
and at reste.
Sen. What is the cause, O kinge, that at
this time of nighte, thou comeste abro-
de? for all they that be of this hauenio
take their reste still: yea and the
[fol. 66] wat
Watchemen as yet are not come from the wal-
lles: wherfore I thinke it mete to goo in.
Aga. O thou oulde man thou semeste unto me to
be uerye happie: for trulie I do thinke that
mortall man to be uerye fortunate, whiche
beinge witheout honor dothe leade his life
quietlye: for I can not iudge their estate
to be happie, whiche rule in honor.
Sen. In thes thinges the glorie and renowne of 30
mans life dothe chefelye consiste.
Aga. But this renowne is uerye brickie, for to
wisshe for dignitie, it semethe uerye plesant,
but it uexethe them that obtain e it: for
sometimes the goddes not trulye honored
take uengance of mans life, and otherwhi-
les againe mens mindes withe care and
thoughte to bringe their matters to passe
are wonderfully troubled.
Sen. I do not praise this opinion in a noble 40
man, for O Agamemnon, thou waste not
borne to haue all thinges chaunce happely
unto the: for seinge thou arte a mortall
man, thou muste sometime reioyse, and
sometimes againe be sorie; for whether
you will or no, this muste nedes happen,
bycause it is so appointed by the goddes.
But me thinkes you are writinge a
letter by candle lighte : what is this wri-
tinge? that you haue in your hande?so
whiche sometime you teare, and then
write againe: otherwhiles you scale it,
and anone unseale it againe, lametinge,
and wepinge. For you seme to make
suche sorowe, as thoughe you weare out
of your witte: What is the matter, O
kinge, what is the matter: If you will
shewe it me, you shall tell it to a trus-
tie man and a faithefull: for thou kno-
weste me to be one that Tindarus thy 60
wiues father sente withe hir, as parte
of hir dowrie: bicause he thoughte me to
be a messenger mete for suche a
Aga. Thou knoweste that Leda Thyestes
daughter, had thre daughters Phoebes
and Clytemnestra, whom I maried:
[fol. 67] and
and Helena whom manye noble men desired
to haue to their wiues: But hir father Tindar-
us consideringe what greate destruction 7
was thretened to them that obtained hir:
doughted longe, whether he shulde giue
hir in mariage to any of them, or noo.
Wherfore bycause he desired to haue all thin-
ges to happen prosperousely, he caused all
the younge men that desired to marie his
daughter, to come all together into the tem-
ple, and ther to make a promise eche to
other before the goddes, that yf any man
either grecian or els barbarian woulde 80
goo about to take Helena from him, who
she choose to be hir husbande: that than
they all wolde withe cruell battell take
uengance of that man. And this beinge
thus brought to passe, Tyndarus gaue
her free libertie to chose amonge them all,
whom she liked beste: and she choose
Menelaus: but I wolde to god it had not
happened: for withein a while after, Pa-
ns, whoo, as the comon uoice saithego
was iudge betwene the goddes of their
bewtie, came to Lacedemon and he
beinge a goodlie yonge man, and of
noble parentage, began to fall in loue
withe her and so takinge hir priuelye
awaye, broughte hir to a litle milage,
uppon the hill Ida. But as sone as
thes nwes weare broughte to Menela-
us, he beinge as one halfe out of his
witte for anger, began to reherse the 100
couenante, whiche he and diuers other
noble men had made betwixte them
at the desire of Tindarus: sainge that
it was mete that they than shulde hel-
pe him, seinge he was oppressed withe
suche a manyfeste iniurye. And the
grecians beinge wonderfully moued
withe his petefull complainte decre-
ed, that they all wolde withe battaile
inuade the Troianes, whiche so wron-no
gefully had taken awaye Hellen.
Wherfore after that they had prepa-
red weapons, horses, charettes, and
[fol. 68] all
all other thinges necessarie for the battell
they choose me to be their captaine, bicause
I was Menelaus brother. But I wolde that
this honor had happened to some other
in my place: for nowe we hauinge gathe-
red together our hooste, and. prepared
our selues ready to battell, are constray- 120
ned to tary here idle at this hauen, bi-
cause the windes beinge again ste us,
we can saile no further. And Calchas
the prophesier studienge longe what shu-
Ide be the cause of it and occasion, at
lengthe hathe answered that if my dau-
ghter Ephigeneya be slaine and sacrafised
to the goddes Dyana, that then the who-
le hooste shall not onlye haue free passage
to Troye, but also uictoriously conquer it: 130
But witheout the dethe of my daughter,
none of all thes thinges can be broughte
to passe. As sone as I harde of this, I coman-
ded that the hooste shulde be sente home
agayne. For I answered that my daughter
shulde neuer be slayne throughe my consent.
But I usinge all maner of meanes to
perswade my brother to the contrarie, yet
notwithstanding I was so moued with
his ernest desire, that at lengthe, 1 140
agreinge to his cruell requeste, wrote
a letter to my wife, that she shulde sen-
de my daughter hether. And bicause she
shulde be the better willinge to let hir goo,
I fained that she shulde be maried to
Achilles: bicause he was so desirous of
her, that he denied to goo to battell,
witheout he might haue hir to his wife;
Soo that nowe I haue determined the
deathe of my daughter, under the color 150
of mariage, and none knoweth of this,
saue only Menelaus, Calchas, and Vlis-
ses. But nowe I repentinge me of the
message whiche I wrote to my wife of,
haue here in this letter denied all that
I saied before. So that if you will carie
this letter unto greace, I will declare
unto you all that is conteined in it,
bicause I knowe you to be a faithefull ser-
uante, bothe to my wife and me. 160
[fol. 69] Sen
Sen. Shew me I praye you, what answere I shall
make to your wife agreable to the letter?
Aga. Tell hir that she shall not nede at this ti-
me to sende my daughter hether : for her
mariage shall be differred unto a noth-
Sen. Will not Achilles thinke you be ang-
erie, for that under the color of him
you haue determined the deathe of
your doughter? 170
Aga. Achilles bearethe the name onlye:
but he is not partaker of the thin-
ge. Neither knowethe he what crafte
we goo aboute.
Sen. Thou haste prepared greuouse thin-
ges, O kinge, for thou haste determi-
ned to sacrafice thy owne childe,
under the colour of mariage.
Aga. Alas, I was than wonderfully discerned,
for the whiche I am no we meruelou- 180
sely trobled. Wherfore I praie thee
make haste, and let not thy oulde
age hinder the in this iourney.
Sen. I make haste to goo, O kinge.
Aga. Do not stale by the plesante springes,
and tarie not under the shadoinge
trees, neither let any slepe hinder the.
Sen. Do not you thinke any suche slouthe-
fulnes in me O kinge.
Aga. I praie you marke well the waye, 190
and loke aboute it diligentely, leste
that my wife preuentinge you, happ-
en to come hether withe my daughter
in the meane time.
Sen. It shalbe done euen so.
Aga. Make haste I praie the, and if thou
mete my wife, turne hir backe againe.
Sen. But what shall I do that your wife
and your daughter may beleue me?
Aga. Deliuer them this token, whiche2oo
is enclosed in this letter: go quicke-
ly, for the daye beginnethe to apeare:
I pray the helpe me nowe in this mat-
ter: for ther is no man to whom all
thinges haue chaunsed happelye.
[fol. 70] Cho.
Cho. What is this? me thinkes I see Menelaius
striuinge withe Agamemnons seruante.
Sen. Darest thou O Menelaus comitte so
greuous an offence in takinge awaye
thos letters, whiche is neither mete, 210
neither lawfull that thou shuldest
Mene. Goo thy waye thou arte to faithefull
to thy master.
Sen. Truly you haue obiected to me a good
Mene. Thou haste deserued ponisshement.
Sen. It is not mete that thou shuldeste
open thos letters, whiche I carie.
Mene. Neither oughtest thou to bringe 220
suche a mischefe uppon all grece.
Sene. Thou striueste in uaine, Menelaius,
for I will not deliuer my letters to
Mene. Thou shake not passe withe them.
Senex. And I will not leue them behinde me.
Me. If thou wilte not deliuer them to me I
will breake thy hede withe my mace.
Sen. I passe not for that: for I thinke it a
good thinge to dye for my masters 230
Men. O thou frowarde felowe deliuer me
thi letters and make no more busy-
Sen. Helpe O Agamenon I suffer iniurie
heare of Menelaus: for withe stron-
ge hande, he hath taken awaie your
letter and he passethe not of hones-
tie nor yet of righte.
Aga, Howe, what busines, and contention 240
is ther amongste you?
Sen. I oughte rather to tell the matter
then you Menelaius.
Aga. What haue you to do Menelayus
withe my seruante? or what cause
haue you to striue withe him, and
to take awaie that whiche pertai-
nethe to me?
Mene. Turne towarde me I praye you that I
maye tell you all the matter. 250
Aga. Thinke you, that I the sone of Atreus am
afraide to loke uppon the Menelaus?
Mene. Seeste thou O Agamemnon thes thy
letters whiche conteine thy craftye
Aga. I see them uery well, but thou shake
not keape them longe.
Mene. Suerlie I will not deliuer them to
the before that I haue shewed them
unto the whole hooste. 260
Aga. Wilte thou desire to knowe that whi-
che dothe not become the, and darest
thou open the seales of my letters?
Mene. As sone as I had opened thy letter I
merueyled what mischefe had put
thos thinges in thi mynde, whiche
thou haste priuely declared in
Aga. Wheare diddest thou get my
Mene. I toke them from your seruante, for I
watchinge by the hooste to heare of
your daughters cominge, bi chaunce
met withe him.
Aga. Do you thinke it mete, that you
shulde knowe of my matters, I praye
you, is not this a token of a naugh-
tie and unshamefaste man?
Me. It was my pleasure so to do : for I owe
no dutie to the. 280
Aga. Thinke you that I can suffer this so
greuous a thinge, that I shulde ney-
ther do my busines, nor yet rule my
nowne house after my fansye?
Mene. Suerlye you chaunge your minde
oftentimes, for sometime you thinke
one thinge, and by and by ageyne
you are in a nother minde.
Aga. In dede you file your wordes well:
but a lerned tonge disposed to euell 290
is a naughtie thinge.
[fol. 72] Mene.
Mene. Yea, and an unconstante, and a diuers
minde is as euell. But nowe I will
ouercome you withe your owne wor-
des if you will not denie them for
anger: for I will not speake them
gretlye for your prayse. Do not you re-
member that whan you desired to
be made captaine ouer the grecians
you semed to refuse it? althoughe in 300
deade you wisshed for it: howe lowlie
than did you shewe your selfe, takinge
euerie man by the hande, and kepinge
open householde, and salutinge euerie
man after his degree, as thoughe you
wolde haue bought your honor withe
the good will of the people. But as sone
as you had obtained this honor,
you began to change your condicions:
for you refused the frendshipe of them, 310
whiche had shewed them selues frindly
to you afore, and then you waxed pro-
ude, kepinge your selfe secretly within
your house. But it dothe not become a
good man to chaunge his fassions after
that he is in honor, for he oughte than
to be more faithefull to his frindes,
when that he is in place to do them
pleasure. I haue obiected this reproche
unto you, bicau.se I my selfe haue had 320
profe of it. After that you withe the
whole hooste weare come to this haue,
you weare careles: but whan you cou-
Ide haue no passage ouer the see, and
the grecians desired license to goo home,
refusinge to spende their time idelly
heare, Then you beinge wonderfully
trobled, fearinge leaste an euell repor-
te shulde rise of you, bicause you beinge
captaine ouer a thousande shippes shulde not 330
ouercome Troie, you asked counsell of
me what you mighte do, that you mig-
hte neither loose dignite, nor yet dishonor
your name. Wherfore as sone as Calc-
has the proficier had answered that
the grecians shulde bothe passe the see
quiately, and also conquer Troye, if your
daughter weare sacrafised to the god-
des Diana, then you weare uerye gladde,
[fol. 73] and
and promised of your owne accorde to giue 340
your daughter to be sacrafised : and beinge
not compelled by any power, you sente unto
your wife for your daughter, faininge
that she sholde be maried to Achilles. But
nowe sodenly you haue chaunged your
minde, and haue written other letters:
saienge that you will not agree to the
deathe of your owne childe: take hede
that you do not denie this, for the hea-
uen it selfe can beare witnes of your 350
saienges. Truly this same dothe happen
to diuers other men, whiche in the be-
ginninge whan they take any weightie
matter in hande, do labor uerie diligent-
lie till they haue obteyned it, and then
they leue it of shamefully e : whiche shame
dothe chance sometimes throughe the
fearfulnes of the subiectes, and someti-
mes whan they do rule the comon welthe
whiche are unmete for it. But nowe I do 360
chefelye lamente the state of the unfor-
tunate grecians, whiche whan they toke
in hande a noble enterprise againste
barbarians, are constrained throughe
your occasion, and your daughters,
withe grete dishonor to leaue the same.
Wherfore truly I thinke that no captai-
ne ought to be chosen for dignite, nor
yet for fauor, but rather for witte: for
he that shulde rule an hooste, oughte 370
in wisedome to excell all other.
Cho. Suerly it is a greuous thinge that
one shulde fall out withe an other:
but speciallie that any contention
shulde be amonge brethren.
Aga. Nowe I will tell you of your fautes,
Menelaus, but in fewe wordes, leste
I shulde seme to be unshamfaste. Wher-
fore I will speake to you as it becu-
methe one brother to an other. Tell 380
me I praye you, why you do sighe so?
who hathe done you any iniurye? Do
you lament the takinge awaye of
your wife? But we can not promise
you to get hir againe for you. For
you your selfe haue bene the occasion
[fol. 74] of
of your owne treble. Wherfore seinge I haue
not offended you: ther is no cause that I
shulde suffer ponisshement for that, whi-
che I am not giltie of. Dothe my prefer- 390
ment troble you? or els dothe the desier
of your bewtifull wife uexe you? for
euell men diuers times haue suche
like desiers. And althoughe truly I am
to blame, for that I haue not better de-
termined my matters, yet I feare me
leste you are moche more to be reprehe-
ded, for that you beinge deliuered of
an euell wife, can not be contented.
Cho. Thes saienges truly do not agree withe 400
that whiche was spoken before. Yet not-
withestandinge they do teache us well,
that we oughte not willingly to hurte
Aga. Alas I wretche haue neuer a frinde.
Mene. Yes you haue diuers frindes, excepte
you will neglecte them.
Aga. But it dothe become frindes to lame-
te one withe an other.
Mene. If you wolde haue frindes, you weare 410
beste to loue them, whom you desier
to helper and not them whom you
Aga. Why, do you not thinke that grece
nedethe helpe in this matter?
Mene. Yes, but I thinke that bothe you, and
grece also are bewitched of some god.
Aga. Brother me thinkes you are to proude
of honor: wherfore I muste seake some
other waie, and get me other frindes. 420
Nun. O Agamemnon, thou ualiant captaine,
I haue broughte to the Ephigeneya,
thy daughter, whom thou diddeste
sende for: and withe hir is come Clite-
nestra thy wife, and Orestes, that
thou mightest be comforted withe
the sighte of them. I haue made ha-
ste to bringe you this nwes: bicause I
see all the grecians waitinge for the
cominge of your daughter as it 430
weare for some strange thinge,
[fol. 75] and
and some of them saye, that you haue sente
for hir by cause you are desirous to see her,
other iudge that she shulde be maried,
and some thinkethe that she shulde be
sacraficed to the goddes Dyana. Tell
me, O kinge, I praye the, to whom shall
she be marled? But nowe let us leaue
to speake of suche thinges, for it is
nede and time to prepare that whi- 440
che shalbe necessarie for the weddinge.
Wherfore I praye you Menelaius, also
be merie, for this day as I truste
shall be uerie fortunate to Iphigeneya.
Aga. Thou haste saied well, wherfore goo
thou in, for all thinges will chance
happely to the. But what shall I saye
whiche am thus in treble, and yet
may not be wail e my owne misery e.
for this occasion they whiche are of 450
meane estate seme unto me uerie
happie. for they may complaine of
their miserie, and bewaile withe
teares the deathe of their children
but to noble men no suche thinge is
graunted, for I dare not lament my
unfortunate chaunce, and yet it gre-
uethe me that I may not shewe my mise-
rie. Wherfore I knowe not what I shulde
sale unto my wife, nor withe what face 460
I shulde loke uppon her. Alas she hathe
undone me bicause of her cominge,
althoughe in dede she thinkethe she hath
a good occasion, for she beleuethe that
hir daughter shalbe maried, in whiche
thinge she shall finde me a liar. Againe
I haue pitie of the litell gerle, for I knowe
she will speake thus unto me, O father
will you kill me? if you forsake me, of
whom shall I aske remedie, Alas what 470
answer shall I make to this, suerly na-
ture oughte to moue me to pitie, and
if that wolde not, yet shame shulde let
me. Alas, Alas: What a greate reproche
is it, the father to be an occasion of
his owne childes deathe. Howe therfore
am I trobled? On this parte pitie and
[fol. 76] shame
shame,on the other side honor and glorie dothe
moche moue me.
Cho. We also lamente your chaunce, so moche as 480
it becomethe women to lamente the
miserie of princes.
Me. I praye you brother let me see your hande.
Aga. I giue you libertie: for I will put all the
uictorie in your hande.
Me. I will not flatter you brother, but I will
she we you faithefully my opinion. Suer-
ly when I sawe you in suche miserie I was
moued withe brotherly pitie, and lame-
nted moche your chaunce. Wherforeigo
nowe I cownsell you, not to sleye your
daughter, neyther to do your selfe
any domage for my cause, for it is not
mete, that thorowghe my occasion you
shulde hinder either your selfe, or any
of your children. For I waienge the
matter, consider what a greuous
thinge it is to kille your owne childe.
And besides this I pitie moche hir, by-
cause I do consider she is my kinswomasoo
and ha the not deserued to dye for Helen's
cause. Wherfore I will councell you not
to sacrafice your daughter, but rather
tosende home againe thewhoole hooste,
And as for my parte, I will agre unto
you. For I consideringe howe a father
oughte to loue his childe, haue chaun-
ged clene my opinion: for I knowe a
good man ought to folowe that whiche
is good. 510
Cho. O Menelayus, you haue spoken lyke
a noble man.
Aga. I praise you Menelaus bicause you ha-
ue chaunged your minde so gentlelye.
Me. Suerlye ambition and desire of welthe
hathe caused moche strife betwene
bretherne, howbeit I do abhorre soche
Aga. Althoughe you are agreed, yet I am
compelled to slee my daughter. 5*0
Me. Whie, no bodie will compell you.
Aga. Yes trulye the whole hooste will re-
quier hir of me.
Mene. If you will sende her home againe,you nea-
de not deliuer her to the grecians.
Aga. If I shulde deceiue them heare, then
they wolde ponisshe me, whan I come
Mene. You oughte not trulie to feare so mo-
che the hooste: for they knowe not of 530
Aga. But I doute leste Calchas shewe
them of it.
Mene. You may remedie that in ponisshinge
Aga. Brother do you not feare Vlisses?
Mene. Yes trulye, for it dothe lie in his pow-
er to hurte either you or me.
Aga. I doughte that for he studiethe uerye
moche to get the good will and fauor 540
of the people.
Mene. He is desirouse in dede of ambition
Aga. If he shulde gather the people together,
and declare unto them what Calchas
hathe saied of my daughter, suerlie
he might quickelye perswade them to
sleye you and me, that thay might get
her the easelier. , But if it shulde chaun-
ce that I shulde flie, then truly they 550
wolde not onlie seke to destroie me,
but also my children. Nowe therfore
seinge that I am in soche treble that
I knowe not what to do, I shall desier
you, O Menelaius, not to shewe this nwes
unto my wife, before that Iphigeneya
be all redie sacrafised, that I may be
lesse moued withe hir pitious complai-
nte. And I praye you also, O ye women,
not to open this matter. 560
Cho. Truly we may see nowe, that they are
mooste happie, whiche beinge neither
in to hye estate, nor yet oppressed
withe to moche pouertie, may quietly
enioye the companie of their frindes.
But beholde heare comethe Clytemne-
stra the quene and Iphigeneya
her daughter, beinge adorned withe
all nobles, Let us therfore mete hir
[fol. 78] withe
withe moche mirthe, leste she shulde be abasshed 5?o
at hir cominge into a strange countrye.
Cly. This trulye is a token of good lucke that so
manye noble women meate us. Let us
therfore come downe from our charet,
that they may bringe us to Agamemnons
Iphi. I praye you mother be not offended withe
me, thoughe I do embrace my father.
Cly. O kinge Agamemnon I am come hether
to fulfill your comaundement in that 580
you sente for me.
Iphi. And I also, O father, am come beinge not
a litle ioyous that I maye see you.
Aga. Neither am I sorie of your companye
daughter, for of all my childre I loue you
Iphi. What is the cause father, that you seame
to be so sadde, seinge you saye, you are so
ioyfull at our comminge.
Aga. You knowe daughter, that he whiche 590
rulethe an hooste shall haue diuers oc-
cations to be trobled.
Iphi. Althoughe in dede a captaine ouer an
hooste shall be disquieted withe sondrie
causes, yet I praye you set aside all soche
trebles, and be merie withe us whiche
are therfore come unto you.
Aga. I will folowe your councell daughter, for
I will reioyse as longe as I may haue
your companie. 600
Iphi. But what meanethe this father that
you do lament so?
Aga. I haue good cause to morne : for after
this daye I shall not see you ageine
of a greate while.
Iphi. I do not understande, O father, what
you mene by this.
Aga. Trulye daughter the more wittely you
speake, the more you treble me.
Iphi. If it be so father, then will I studie 610
to seme more folisshe that you may
[fol. 79] Aga.
Aga. Suerly I am constrained to praise gretlye your
witte, for I do delite moche in it.
Iphi. I praye you than father set awaye all other bu-
sines, and tarie amongste us your children.
Aga. Indede I am desirous so to do, althoughe I
can not as yet haue libertie.
Iphi. What is the matter father that you tarie
heare so longe in this hauen. 620
Aga. Trulye we are desirous to goo hens, but we
can haue no passage.
Iphi. Where I praye you dwell thos people
whiche are called the troians?
Aga. They are under the kyngdome of Priamus.
Iphi. I wolde to god I might goo withe you into
Aga. I will graunte you your requeste daugh-
ter, for I am determined to take you with
Iphi. Shall I goo alone, or els with my mother?
Aga. No trulie you shall neither haue the
companie of me, nor yet of your mother.
Iphi. Whie? will you set me in a strange
Aga. Leaue to enquier of suche thinges,
for it is not lawfull that women
shulde knowe them.
Iphi. Make haste O father to goo unto Troye,
that you may come quickely ageine 640
Aga. So I do daughter, but I muste sacrafice
Iphi. Shall I be at the sacrafice father?
Aga. Ye daughter, for you muste be one
of the chefeste.
Iphi. Why? shall I dawnce aboute it?
Aga Truly I counte my selfe more happie
bicause you do not understande me,
goo your waye therfore and make you 650
redie withe the other uirgins. But
let me fiste take my leaue of you, for
this daye shall seperate you and me
[fol. 80] farre
farre asonder; althoughe this your mariage
shalbe uerie noble, yet truly it dothe greue
me to bestowe you so farre of, whom withe
suche care I haue brought up.
Cli. Althoughe you are somewhat trobled yet I
am not of so slender a wit, but that I can
easely be perswaded, seinge that bothe the 660
custome and also time dothe require,
but tell me I praye you shall not Achilles
be my daughters husband e?
Aga. Yes trulie.
Cli. He is a mete mariage in dede, but I am
desirous to knowe wher he dwellethe.
Aga. His dwellinge is aboute the flode Aphidna.
Cli. Whan I praye you shall the weddinge be?
Aga, Trulie uerie shortelie, for we make haste
to goo hence. 670
Cli. If it be so, then you haue nede to sacre-
fice that whiche muste be done before
Aga. I will goo about it therfore, that the ma-
riage may be done the quickelier.
Cli. Wher I pray you shall the feste be?
Aga. Heare bicause of the hooste.
Cli. Shewe me I praye you the place, that I
may be partaker of it.
Aga. I praye you wife obey me in this matter. 680
Cli. What cause haue you, O kinge, to saie so,
for whan did I euer disobey you?
Aga. I am determined to marie my daughter
Cli. Shall not I beinge hir mother be at the
Aga. No trulie : for she shalbe maried among-
ste the grecians.
Cli. Wheare then shall I tarie?
Aga. It is beste for you to goo againe to grece. 690
Cli. If I leaue my daughter behinde me,
who shall than be in my steade?
Aga. Trulie I will do your office: for it doth
not become you to be amongste
suche a company e of men.
[fol. 81] Cli.
Cli. Althoughe that it be not mete in dede : yet
the mother ought to be at the mariage
of the daughter.
Aga. But I thinke you haue more nede to be
amongste your other daughters at grece: 700
make you redie therfore to go home.
Cli. I will not goo home yet, for you oughte to
do sacrafice onlie: but I muste see all
thinges made redie for the mariage.
Aga. I haue labored in uayne: for althoughe
I haue used deceite and crafte, yea unto
my dearest frindes: yet I can not fulfill
Achyll. Wher is Agamemnon, the captaine of the
grecians, or who of his seruantes will call 710
him unto me. For I beinge moued withe
the pitious complaintes of the people,
am compelled to enquire of their capta-
ines the cause, whi they beinge constray-
ned to forsake bothe their wiues, their chil-
dren, and also their countrie, nowe lie
heare idlely without any ualiant dedes
Cly. As sone as I harde your uoice, O Achilles,
I came out hastely to meate you. 720
Achyll. What woman is this that semeth
Cly. I do not meruell thoughe you knowe
not me, whom you neuer sawe: Yet
neuertheles, I muste nedes praise
Achill. Who are you I pray you, that you be-
inge a woman dare come amongste
suche a companie of men?
Cly. My name is Clitemnestra, and I am 730
the daughter of leda and the
wife of Agamemnon.
Achill. You haue declared uerie well in few
wordes what you are, and althoughe
you be a noble woman, yet is it not
lawfull for me to tarie heare.
Cli. Whether goo you I praye you let us
shake handes to getter: for I truste
this mariage shalbe uerie fortunate
unto you. 74
Achil. It is not lawfull that I shulde be so familiar
withe Agamemnons wife.
Clit. Yes trulie you may well inoughe, seinge
you shall marie my daughter.
Achill. I do not knowe what mariage you meane,
excepte you haue harde some nwes, whiche
bicause you knowe to be untrue, you reporte
as a false tale.
Clit. I do not meruell, allthoughe you will not be
acknowen of this mariage: for it is the fassion 750
of all younge men to kepe it secrete for
Achil. No trulie I will not dissemble withe you
for in dede I neuer desired the mariage
of your daughter.
Clit. Yf it be so in dede, then I maruell as
moche of your saienges as you did of mine.
Achill. Tell me I praye you wherfore you haue
spoken thes thinges: for it may happen
that bothe of us are deceiued. 760
Clitt. Thinke you that it is not a grete shame
unto me, that I haue tolde suche a lye,
but I will nowe goo, and knowe the tru-
th e of all this matter.
Achill. Tell me I praie you, or you goo hence,
wher your husbande is? for I am uerie
desirous to speake withe him.
Sen. Tarie I praie you, O Achilles, for I muste
speake bothe withe you, and also withe
Clit. Who dothe call me so hastelye?
Sen. It is euen I the seruant of Agamenon.
Clit. If you haue any thinge to saie to us
come neare, and tell it quickelie
witheout any circumstance, for you
neade not to doughte us, for I knowe
you haue euer serued diligentlye
bothe me and also diuers of myne
Sen. Bicause I haue bene euer faithefull 780
unto you, therfore nowe I muste
open unto you a uerye secrete
thinge, trulie Agamnon hathe
[fol. 83] de-
determined to sleye Iphigeneya his daugh-
ter in sacrafice.
Clit. Suerlie I thinke either you be madde to
tell suche an unlikelie tale, or els if it be
so in dede, Agamemnon to be halfe out of
his witte to agree to suche a cruell mur-
Sen. No trulie he is not madde thoughe in
dede he hathe plaied the madde mans
Clit. Wherfore I praye you hathe he preten-
ded to do so cruell a dede.
Sen. Trulye he is compelled to do so: forCalchas
the propheciar hath answered that the
grecians can not sayle to troie with-
out the deathe of your daughter.
Cli. If this be true, wherfore than did he 800
faine, that she shulde be maried.
Sen. That was bicause you shulde be the
better willinge to let hir come.
Cli. Howe I praye you, do you knowe this.
Sen. Agamemnon him selfe shewed me of this
thinge : for once he did repente him sel-
fe so moche of the consen tinge to his da-
ughters deathe, that he was determined
to sende you a nother letter by me, whi-
che was contrarie to the firste. 810
Cli. Whie did you not deliuer them to me?
Sen. As I was bringinge them, I happened
to mete withe Menelaus, who withe
uiolence toke them from me.
Cly. Heare you this O Achilles?
Achill. Yea truly I heare it well, and I pitie
you moche: for I do euen abhorre this
cruell dede of your husbande.
Clit. Nowe therfore seinge this thinge is
chaunsed so unfortunately unto me, 820
I shall moste ernestelie desier you
O Achilles, to helpe me nowe in this
miserie: for .the reproche shalbe yours,
seinge my daughter beinge sente for
[fol. 84] under
under the color of your name, shall nowe be
slaine. Besides this yf you do not helpe us, we
can bi no meanes auoide this mischefe: for
I alone beinge a woman can not perswade
Agamemnon: And if you forsake us, none
shall dare to take our parte. 830
Cho. Truly it is a uerie troblesome thinge to haue
childre: for we are euen by nature compelled
to be sorie for their mishappes.
Achill. My minde is trobled more and more, for I
am wonderfullie moued withe your piti-
ous complainte: Wherfore seinge you haue
required helpe at my hande I will promi-
se you to deliuer bothe you, and your da-
ughter from this miserie, if by any meanes
I maye withestande the cruell pretence 840
of Agamemnon and his brother, for this
matter pertainethe unto me also, bicau-
se that if she beinge sent for in my name
shulde be slaine, then truly it wolde turne
to no small dishonor to me. Wherfore I am
compelled to helpe your daughter so mo-
che as shall lie in my power: not onlye
for that I am moued withe pitie, but
also bicause it shoulde sotmde to no litell
reproche to me, if that throughe my occa- 850
tion your daughter shulde be slaine.
Cli. Suerlie you haue spoken uerie well and
like a noble man.
How therfore I praye you shall I giue you
thankes worthie your desertes : for if
I shulde prayse you to moche, I feare
leste I shulde moue you to hatred, ra-
ther then to pitie, for then you wolde
iudge me to be a flatterer, whiche of all
noble men is to be abhorred, Againe 860
if I shulde giue you fewer thankes, tha
you deserue, then I may well be counted
unthankefull: so that now I doughte
what to do: but seinge you so gentlely
haue promised me your helpe, I will
submit bothe me, and my daughter
under your rule: Wherfore if it please
you I will sende for her hether, that
she hir selfe may require helpe at
your hande. 870
[fol. 85] Achill.
Achill. No trulie I thinke it not mete, that she shulde
come abrode,for suerly men wolde iudge euell
of hir, if she shulde come moche amongste com-
panie. It is beste therfore that you kepe
hir at home, and as for my parte trulie
I will do as moche for hir as shall lie in my
power. But I thinke it beste, that you
shulde proue firste if you can perswade
her father not to deliuer her.
Clit. Suerlye I shall not preuaile withe him: for 880
he is so fearfull, that he dareth do nothinge
witheout the consent of the whoole hooste.
Achil. Althoughe you thinke you shall not perswa-
de him, yet it is mete that firste you shou-
Ide shewe him, what a greuous thinge it
is to be called a destroyar of his owne
children, and if he be nothinge moued
withe that, then you may lawfully seke
helpe at other folkes handes.
Clit. You haue spoken uerie well. Wherfore 1 890
will folowe your counsell. but tell me I
praye you wher shall I finde you, that
I may shew you what answer he dothe
make me ?
Achil. I will tarie heare till you come againe, for
suerlyif I shulde goo with you, you shoulde
be sclandered by me.
Clit. In all this matter I will be ruled by you,
wherfore if I obtaine my swte the than-
kes shall be yours and not mine. But 900
nowe heare cometh Agamemnon, shew
me I praye you therfore what I shulde
answer him if he aske for my daughter,
seinge that she maketh soche mone.
Aga. I am gladde that I haue met withe you
O Clitemnestra : for I haue diuers
thinges to talke withe you of.
Clit. If you haue any thinge to saie to me,
tell me I pray you, for I am redie
to heare. 9 10
Aga. Firste call out my daughter that she
maye goo withe me to the temple of
the goddes Diana, for I haue prepa-
red all thinge redie for the sacrafice.
Clit. You haue spoken well, thoughe in dede
your doinges do not agre withe your
[fol. 86] wordes
wordes, but goo your waies daughter
withe your father, and take withe you
your brother Orestes.
Aga. Why do you wepe and lament so daughter? 920
Iphi. Alas? how shoulde I suffer this troble, seinge
that all mortall men ar uexed bothe in
the beginninge, the middeste, and the
endinge of their miserie.
Aga. What is the cause, that all you are so
Clit. I will shewe you, if you will promise
me to tell me one thinge, whiche I
Aga. Yes trulie I will graunte you your re- 930
queste, for I did thinke to haue asked
it of you.
Clit. I heare saie that you goo aboute to sleye
your owne childe.
Aga. What, you haue spoken thos thinges,
whiche you oughte neither to saye, nor
yet to thinke.
Clit. Answer me I praye you to this questi-
on, as you promised.
Aga. It is not lawfull for me to answer you 940
to thos thinges, whiche you ought not
Clit. I haue not enquired of any thinge that
dothe not become me : but take you hede
rather, leste you make suche an answer
as you ought not.
Aga. Who hathe done you any iniurye,orwho
hathe giuen you cause to saie so?
Clit. Aske you this question of me? asthoughe
your crafte coulde not be perceiued. 950
Aga. Alas, I am trobled more and more, for all
my secrete councellisnoweopenlie decla-
Clit. In dede I haue harde of all that, whiche
you haue prepared for your daughter:
yea and you your selfe haue partelie
confessed it in holdinge your peace.
Aga. I am constrained to holde my peace,
bicause I haue tolde you so manifest
a lye that I can not denie it. 9 6
[fol. 87] Clit.
Clit. Herken nowe I praye you therfore: for 1
muste nedes tell you of your faute. Do you
not remember, that you marled me withe
out the good will of all my frindes, takinge
me awaye withe stronge hande, after
that you had slaine my other husbande
Tantalus, whiche cruell dedes my brother
Castor and Pollux wolde haue reuenged,
excepte Tindarus my father had deli-
uered you out of that parell: so that by 97
his meanes, you did obtaine me to be your
wife, who after I was maried neuer
shewed my selfe disobedient unto you in
any thinge. And then I happened to
haue thre sones at one birthe, and after-
warde one daughter, and will you nowe
sleye hir, knowinge no iuste cause whie?
For if any man shoulde aske of you the
cause of the deathe of your daughter,
you wolde answer for Helens sake, whiche 9 8
can be no lawfull cause, for it is not
mete, that we sholde sleye our owne chil-
de for a naughtie womans sake: nei-
ther destroie thos that by nature we
oughte to lone, for their cause only
whiche are hated of all men. Besides
this, if you kille my daughter, what
lamentacion muste I nedes make,
Whan I shall goo home, and wante
the companie of her? consideringe that 990
she was slaine bi the handes of her owne
father : Wherfore if you will not be mo-
ued withe pitie, take hede leste you
compelle me to speke thos thinges, that
do not become a good wife: yea and you
your selfe do thos thinges that a good
man ought not. But tell me nowe I
praie you, what good do you obtaine by
the deathe of your daughter? do you
loke for a fortunate returne? trulye 1000
you can not by this meanes get that,
for that iournye can not ende happely
whiche is begone withe mischefe. Besides
this suerlie you shall stirre up the goddes
to anger againste you. for they do euen
hate them, that are manquellers. Agay-
ne you can not enioye the companie of
your other children whan you come home,
[fol. 88] for
for they will euen feare and abhorre you, se-
inge that willinglie you do destroie your 1010
daughter, and you shall not only fall into
this mischefe, but also you shall purchase
your selfe the name of a cruell tyrante.
For you weare chosen the captaine ouer
the grecians to execute iustice to all
men, and not to do bothe me and also your
children suche an iniurie: For it is not
mete that your children shuld be ponisshed
for that whiche pertaineth not to you, ney-
ther ought I to loose my daughter for He- 1020
lenas cause who hathe neuer shew-
ed her selfe faithefull to hir husbande.
Cho. It is mete, O Agamemnon, that you shul-
de folowe your wiues councell. for it is
not lawfull that a father shulde destroy
Iphi. Nowe O father I knelinge uppon my kne-
es and makinge moste humble sute, do
mooste ernestely desier you to haue
pitie uppon me your daughter, and not to 1030
sleye me so cruelly, for you knowe it is
geuen to all mortall men to be desi-
rous of life. Ageine remember that I am
your daughter, and howe you semed euer
to loue me beste of all your children, in
so moche that you weare wonte euer to
desier, that you might see me maried to
one worthie of my degree, and I did
euer wisshe agayne, that I might Hue
to see you an olde man, that you mi- 1040
ght haue moche ioye bothe of me, and
also of your other children. And will
you nowe consent to my dethe? forget-
tinge bothe that whiche you weare won-
te to saye, and also what paine you and
my mother toke in bringinge me up,
knowing no cause in me worthie of
deathe? for what haue I to do withe He-
lena. But nowe father seinge you are
nothinge moued withe my lamentation, 1050
I will call hether my yonge brother Orestes,
for I knowe he will be sorye to see his sis-
ter slayne, and againe you can not
choose, but you muste nedes haue pitie
either of him, or els of me, consideringe
what a lawfull requeste we do desier,
for you knowe that all men are desi-
[fol. 89] rous
rous of lyfe, and ther is no wise man, but he
will choose rather to Hue in miserie than
to die. 1060
Aga. I knowe in what thinges I ought to shewe
pitie, and wherin I ought not, and I loue my
children as it becomethe a father, for I do
not this of my selfe, nor yet for my
brothers sake, but rather by compulsion of
the hooste: for the goddes haue answered
that they can not passe the see without
your dethe, and they are so desirous to
go thither, that they care not what troble
and miserie they suffer: so that they may 1070
see it. Wherfore it lieth not in my power
to withstande them: for I am not able
to make any resistance againste them.
I am therfore compelled daughter to de-
liuer you to them.
Cli. Alas, daughter into what miserie are bothe
you and I driuen, seinge that your owne
father will concente to your deathe.
Iphi. Alas mother this is the laste daie, that
euer I shall see you. O Vnhappi Troye 1080
whiche haste norisshed and brought up
that wicked man Paris: O Vnfortunate
Venus whiche diddest promise to giue
Hellena to him, for you haue bene the
cause of my destruction, thoughe in
dede I throughe my deathe shall purcha-
se the grecians a glorious uictorie. Alas
mother in what an unluckye time
was I borne, that myne owne father
whiche hathe concented unto my deathe, 1090
dothe nowe forsake me in this miserie.
I wolde to god that the grecians had
neuer taken in hande this iornie.
But me thinkes mother, I see a
grete companie of men cominge hether,
what are they I praye you?
Clit. Trulye yonder is Achilles.
Iphi. Let me then I praie you go hens
that I may hide my face: for
I am ashamed.
Clit. What cause haue you so to do?
Iphi. Trulie bicause it was saied that I shul-
de haue bene his wife.
[fol. 90] Clit.
Clit. Daughter, you muste laie awaie all shame-
fastenes nowe, for you may use no nicenes:
but rather proue by what meanes you maye
beste saue your life.
Cho. Alas Clitemnestra ho we unhappi arte thou
for truly ther is grete talkinge of the in
the whoole citie. mo
Clit. Wherof I pray you?
Cho. Of your daughter how she shalbe slaine.
Clit. You haue brought me uerie euell nwes,
but tell me I praye you doth no bodie
speake againste it?
Achil. Yes I my selfe haue bene in dawnger of my
life, bicause I toke your daughters parte.
Clit. Who I pray you dare hurte you?
Achil. Truly the whoole hooste.
Clit. Do not your owne contrie men of 1120
Mirmido helpe you?
Achil. No truly, for euen they also did speke againste
me saienge, that I was in loue withe her,
and therfore I did preferre myne owne ple-
asure, aboue the comodite of my countrie.
Clit. What answer then made you unto them?
Achil. I saied that I ought not to suffer her to
be slaine whiche was reported by hir
owne father that she shoulde haue bene
my wife. 1130
Clit. You saied well in dede : for Agamemnon
sente for her from grece, faininge that
is was for that purpose.
Achil. But thoughe I coulde not preuaile againste
suche a multitude of people, yet I will do
as moche as shall lie in my power for
Clit. Alas then you alone shalbe compelled to
striue againste many.
Achil. Do you not see a greate companye of 1140
Clit. I praye god they be your frindes.
Achil. Yes trulye that they be.
Clit. Than I hope my daughter shall not die.
Achil. No that she shall not, if I can helpe hir.
Clit. But will ther come any bodie hether
to sleye hir?
[fol. 91] Achil.
Achil. Yea truly Vlisses will be heare anone withe a
greate companie of men to take her awaie.
Clit. Is he comanded to do so, or dothe he it but of 1150
his owne heade?
Achil. No truly he is not comanded.
Cli. Alas then he hathe taken uppon him a wicked
dede, seinge he will defile him selfe withe
the daunger and deathe of my daughter.
Achil. Truly but I will not suffer him.
Clit. But if he goo aboute to take my daughter
awaye withe stronge power what shall I
Achil. You ware beste to kepe her by you, for n6o
the matter shalbe driuen to that pointe.
Iphi. Herken O mother I praye you unto my
wordes. for I perceiue you are angrie
withe your husband, whiche
you may not do. for you can not obtaine
your purpose by that meanes: And you ought
rather to haue thanked Achilles, bicause
he so gentelly hathe promised you his helpe,
whiche maye happen to bringe him into
a greate mischefe. I wolde counsell you 1170
therfore to suffer this treble paciently, for
I muste nedes die, and will suffer it wil-
lingelye. Consider I praie you mother,
for what a lawfull cause I shalbe slaine.
Dothe not bothe the destruction of Troie,
and also the welthe of grece, whiche is the
mooste frutefull countrie of the worlde
hange upon my deathe? And if this wicked
enterprise of the Troians be not reuenged,
than truly the grecians shall not kepenSo
neither their children, nor yet their wiues
in peace: And I shall not onlie remedie
all thes thinges withe my deathe: but
also get a glorious renowne to the gre-
cians for euer. Againe remember how
I was not borne for your sake onlie, but
rather for the comodite of my countrie,
thinke you therfore that it is mete, that
sue he a companie of men beinge gathe-
red together to reuenge the greate in- 1190
iurie, whiche all grece hathe suffered
shoulde be let of their iournye for my
cause. Suerlie mother we can not spe-
ke againste this, for do you not thinke
[fol. 92] it
it to be better that I shulde die, then so many-
noble men to be let of their iournye for one
womans sake? for one noble man is better
than a thousande women. Besides this se-
3^''' . _ . ..
inge my deathe is determined amongste
the goddes, trulie no mortall man oughte 1200
to witstande it. Wherfore I will offer my
selfe willingly to deathe, for my countrie: for
by this meanes I shall not only leaue a perpe-
tuall memorie of my deathe, but I shall cause
also the grecians to rule ouer the barbarians,
j whiche dothe as it weare properly belonge
to them, for the grecians bi nature are
free, like as the barbarias are borne to bon-
Cho. Suerlie you are happie O Iphigeneya, that 1210
you can suffer so pacientlye all this treble.
Achil. Trulie I wolde counte my selfe happi if I mi-
ghte obteine the O Iphigeneya to be my wife,
and I thinke the O grece to be uerie fortunate
bicause thou haste norisshed soche a one: for
you haue spoken uerie well, in that you
will not striue againste jhe determinacion
of the goddes. Wherfore I beinge not onlie
moued withe pitie, for that I see you brought
into suche a necessite, but also stirred up 1220
more withe loue towardes you, desiringe
to haue you to my wife, will promise you
faithefullye to withstande the grecians,
as moche as shall lye in my power, that
they shall not sleye you.
Iphi. Suerlie I haue spoken euen as I thoughte
in dede: Wherfore I shall desire you O Achil-
les, not to put your selfe in daunger for
my cause: but suffer me rather to saue
all grece withe my deathe. 1230
Achil. Trulie I wonder gretelie at the bouldenes
of your minde. And bicause you seme
to be so willinge to die, I can not speake
agairiste you: yet neuertheles I will pro-
mise to helpe you still, leste you shulde
happen to chaunge your minde.
Iphi. Wherfore mother, do you holde your peace
lamentinge so withe in your selfe.
Clit. Alas, I wretched creature haue greate
cause to mourne. 1240
Iphi. Be of good comforte mother I praie you,
and folowe my councell, and do not
teare your clothes so.
[fol. 93] Cli -
Cli. Howe can I do otherwise, seinge I shall
Iphi. I praie you mother, studie not to saue
my life, for I shall get you moche honor
by my deathe.
Clyt.jWhat shall not I lament your deathe?
Iphi. I No truly you oughte not, seinge that 11250
('shall bothe be sacraficed to the goddes
* Dyana and also saue grece.
Cly. Well I will folowe your cownsell daughter,
seinge you haue spoken so well: but tell me,
what shall I save to your sisters from you?
v^_ _^.- J - -" ~- -r ~ " "it" ~~ 1
Iphi. Desier them I praie you, not to mourne
for my deathe.
Clit. And what shall I saye unto the other uir-
gins from you.
Iphi. Bid them all farewell in my name, and 1 1260
praye you for my sake bringe up my litell
brother Orestes, till he come to mans age.
Clit. Take your leaue of him, for this is the
laste daie, that euer you shall see him.
Iphi. Farewell my welbeloued brother, for I am
euen as it weare compelled to loue you,
bicause you ware so glad to helpe me.
Clit. Is ther any other thinge, that I may
do for you at grece?
Iphi. No truly^ but I prajg _you not to hate 1270
myj^therfor this dedej for he is com-
pelled to^ do it For the welthe ancT honor
Clit. If he hath done this willinglye then
trulye he hathe comitted a dede
farre unworthie of suche a noble man
as he is.
Iphi. Who is this, that will carie me hence
Clit. I will goo withe you O daughter. 1280
Iphi. Take hede I praye you leste you happen
to do that whiche shall not become you:
Wherfore O Mother I praye you folowe
my councell and tarie heare still,
for I muste nedes goo to be sacrafised
unto the goddes Diana,
Clit. And will you go awaye, O daughter, leuinge
me your mother heare?
Iphi. Yeae suerlye mother, I muste goo from you
unto suche a place, from whence I shall neuer 1290
come ageine, althoughe I haue not deserued
Clit. I pray you daughter tarie, and do not for-
sake me nowe.
Iphi. Suerlye I will goo hence Mother, for if I
did tarie, I shulde moue you to more lamen-
tation. Wherfore I shall desier all you women
to singe some songe of my deathe, and to
prophecie good lucke unto the grecians: for
withe my deathe I shall purchase unto 1300
them a glorious uictorie; bringe me
therfore unto the aultor of the temple
of the goddes Diana, that withe my
blode I maye pacific the wrathe of the
goddes againste you.
Cho. O Quene Clitemnestra of moste honor,
after what fassion shall we lament, seinge
we may not shewe any token of sadnes
at the sacrafice.
Iphi. I wolde not haue you to mourne for my 1310
cause, for I will not refuse to die.
Cho. In dede by this meanes you shall get your
selfe a perpetuall renowne for euer.
Iphi. Alas thou sone^whiche arte comforte to
mans life, O thou light whiche doeste
make ioyfull all creatures, I shalbe
compelled by and by to forsake you all
and to chaunge my life.
Cho. Beholde yonder goethe the uirgine to be
sacraficed withe a grete companye of 1320
souldiers after hir, whos bewtifull face
and faire bodi anone shalbe defiled
withe hir owne blode. Yet happie arte
thou, O Iphigeneya, that withe thy dea-
the, thou shake jD^dtas^jimto the greci-
ans a quiet passage, whiche T pray god
may^nof only happen fortunatelie unto
them, but also that they may returne
againe prosperousely withe a glorious
Nun7 Come hether, O Clitemnestra for I
muste speke withe you.
Clit. Tell me I praie you what woulde you
withe me, that you call so hastely, is ther
any more mischefe in hande that I
muste heare of?
[fol. 95] Nun.
Nun. I muste tell you of a wonder, whiche hathe
happened at the sacrafisinge of your daughter.
Clit. Shew me I pray you quickely what it is?
Nun. As we wente unto the place wher the sacra- 1340
fice shulde be, and passed thorowe the plesant
fildes, wher the whole hooste waited for your
daughter: Agamemnon seinge hir brought unto
her deathe, began to lament and wepe. But
she perceyuinge what mone hir father made
saied unto him thes wordes, O father, I am
come hether to offer my bodie willinglie for
the wellthe of my countrie: Wherfore seinge
that I shall be sacraficed for the comodite of
all grece, I do desier you, that none of the 1350
grecians may slaie me preuilie: for I will
make no resistance ageinste you. And whan
she had spoken thes wordes, all they whiche
weare present, weare wonderful lye
astonied at the stoutenes of her minde: So
after this, Ach illes withe th e reste pjTThe
whole hooste began to desier the goddes
Diana, that she wolde accepte _the sacrafice
of the uirgins blode, and that she wolde
graunte them a prosperous succes of their 1360
iorney. And whan they had made an
ende: thepreste takinge the s worde in his han-
de, began to loke for a place conuenient,
wher he might sle your daughter; sodenly
there chaunced a grete wonder, for althou^
ghe all the people harde the--uoke of the
stroke, jret she uanisshed sodenlye awaye,
And whan all 3iey~~rneFueImge" "at it,
began to giue a greate skritche, then ther
appeared unto them a white SJiarte , lienge 1370
before the auTtor, strudgelinge^mn life..
And Calchas beinge then present, and
seinge what had happened, did wonder-
fully reioyse, and tolde the capitaines,
that this harte was sente of the goddes,
v^ ^ _____ t O
bicause sheT wolde noT^lmire:" fair "aiitter
defile3^vvithe jhe "blofleTof yourTaughter.
Moreouer he saied that^ this was a token
of good lucke, and that their iournie shou-
Ide ^cHaunce prosperously unto them. 1380
Wherfore he willed that they shulde
tarye no lenger here. And whan this
was so finisshed, Agamemnon willed me
to shewe all thes thinges unto you, bi-
[fol. 96] cause
cause that I my selfe was present then Wher-
fore I shall desier you, to thinke no unkindnes
in the kinge your husbande: for suerlie the se-
crete power of the goddes will saue them
whom they loue: for this daie your daughter
hathe bene bothe afiue^ and. deade. 1390
Cho. Suerly O Clitemnestra you oughte to reioise
of this nwes, that your daughter is taken
x up into heauen.
Clit. But I am in doughte whether I shulde
beleue that thou, O daughter, arte amongste
the goddes, or els, that they haue fained it to
Cho. Beholde yonder cometh Agamemnon, who
can tell the truthe of all this matter.
Aga. Trulye wife, we are happie for our daughters 1400
sake, for suerlie she is placed in heuen : But
nowe I thinke it beste that you goo home,
seinge that we shall take our iournye so shortely
unto Troy: Wherfore nowe fare you well.
And of this matter I will comune more at
my returne, and in the meane season I
praie god sende you well to do, and your
Cho. O happie Agamemnon, the goddes graunte the a
fortunate iournie unto Troye, and a
mooste prosperous returne againe.
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